The Circulation of Toxicity Between Urban and Peri-urban Frontiers

Using a flow-based approach, this article uses the example of water in Ghaziabad in an attempt to reveal how toxicity is circulated and re-circulated between the urban and the peri-urban.  Kartik Chugh Development and Peri-urbanisation Since the economic liberalization in 1991, India has experienced an upsurge in urbanization. In 2019, 34.5% of India’s total population … Continue reading The Circulation of Toxicity Between Urban and Peri-urban Frontiers